The Main Issues in Us-Ecuador Relations in the 21st Century

  • Rafał WORDLICZEK

Abstract

Froman American perspective, Ecuador is a low-interest country and, thus US has developed a specific foreign policy towards it. There are two main goals driving US foreign policy towards Ecuador: democracy promotion and to encourage Ecuador in free market reforms by American economic initiatives like Andean Trade Preferences Act (ATPA). At present, US, European countries and Russia are all competing to control the keys of the Ecuadorian market.

References


  • Batowski, H. (2001), Między dwiema wojnami 1919-1939. Zarys historii dyplomatycznej, Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie.
  • Beittel, J.S. (2012), Colombia: Background and U.S. Relations, and Congressional Interest, US Congressional Research Service, November 28, Washington D.C.
  • Beittel, J.S. (2013a), Ecuador: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations, US Congressional Research Service, July 3, Washington D.C.
  • Beittel, J.S. (2013b), Peace Talks in Colombia, US Congressional Research Service, March 1, Washington D.C.
  • Bolle, M.J. (2012), U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues, US Congressional Research Service January 4, Washington D.C.
  • Bonilla, A, (ed.) (1999), Ecuador-Perú: bajo un mismo sol: Horizonte de la negociación y el conflicto, Quito: DESCO-FLASCO.
  • Bagley, B., Bonilla, A., Páez A. (ed.) (1991), La economía política del narcotráfico: el caso ecuatoriano, Quito: FLASCO.
  • DeShazo, P., Forman, J.M., McLean, P. (2009), Countering Threats to Security and Stability in a Failing State: Lessons from Colombia, Center for Strategic& International Studies, Washington D.C., ttp://csis.org/files/publication/090930_DeShazo_CounteringThreats_Web.pdf (accessed: 20.11.2013).
  • Dobrzycki, W. (2000), Stosunki międzynarodowe w Ameryce Łacińskiej. Historia i współczesność, Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Scholar.
  • Dobrzycki, W. (2006), Historia stosunków międzynarodowych 1815-1945, Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Scholar.
  • “Ecuador Oil & Gas Report Q1 2010” (2010a), in: Business Monitor International, no. 12, http://www.businessmonitor.com (accessed: 27.12.2013).
  • “Ecuador Oil & Gas Report Q1 2010” (2010b), in: Business Monitor International, no. 14, http://www.businessmonitor.com (accessed: 27.12.2013).
  • “Ecuador Oil & Gas Report Q1 2010” (2010c), in: Business Monitor International, no. 8, http://www.businessmonitor.com (accessed: 21.01.2014).
  • “Energy in the Americas. Building a Lasting Partnership for Security and Prosperity” (2001), A Report of the Council of the Americas. Energy Action Group, Washington D.C.
  • “Expulsion of US Ambassadors: Ecuador, Honduras support Bolivia and Venezuela” (2008), in: Global Research, September 14, http://www.globalresearch.ca/expulsion-of-usambassadors-ecuador-honduras-support-bolivia-venezuela/12975 (accessed: 28.02.2013).
  • Garcia, M.J. (2013), U.S. May Face Significant Obstacles in Attempt to Apprehend Edward Snowden, US Congressional Research Service, Washington D.C.
  • Human Rights Watch (2013), Human Rights in Ecuador, http://www.hrw.org/node/106213 (accessed: 21.12.2013).
  • Jiménez, Navarro G. (2005), Inmunidad. La ruta de la dominación, Quito: Ediciones Zitra.
  • Leiva, Ponce J. (ed.) (2005), Las relaciones Ecuador-Estados Unidos en 25 años de democracia (1979-2004), Quito: ABYA-YALA/FLASCO.
  • Marcella, G., Downs, R. (eds.) (1999), Security Cooperation in the Western Hemisphere. Resolving the Ecuador-Peru Conflict, Miami: University of Miami North South Center.
  • McClintock, C., Vallas, F. (2003), The United States and Peru. Cooperation at a Cost, New York/London: Routledge.
  • Moss, N. (2001), “U.S. Plans More Troops for Ecuador Drugs Fight Anti-narcotics Battle 400 Personnel and Use of Larger, More Sophisticated Aircraft Agreed in 10 – Year Accord”, Financial Times, June 6.
  • “New Estimates Boost Worldwide Oil, Gas Reserves” (2008), in: Oil & Gas Journal, vol. 106, no. 48, http://www.ogj.com/articles/print/volume-106/issue-48/general-interest.html (accessed: 13.01.2013).
  • Palmer, Scott D. (1997), “Peru – Ecuador Border Conflict: Missed Opportunities, Misplaced Nationalism, and Multilateral Peacekeeping”, in: Journal of Inter – American Studies and World Affairs, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 98-125.
  • Plan Colombia: an Initial Assessment: Hearing before the Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control, (2001), 107th Congress, 1st session, February 28, Washington D.C., http://hdl.handle.net/2027/pur1.3275407017801 (accessed 27. 05.2014).
  • Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: George Bush (1991), Book II (July 1 to December 31, 1990), Washington D.C.
  • Radler, M. (2010), “Total Reserves, Production Climb on Mixed Results”, in: Oil & Gas Journal, vol. 108, no. 46, http://www.ogj.com/articles/print/volume-108/issue-46/special-reports.html (accessed 23.01.2014).
  • Santamaria, C. (2013), “After Bolivia, USAID now out of Ecuador too”, International Development News, https://devex.com/news/after-bolivia-usaid-now-out-of-ecuador-too/ (accessed 21.03.2014).
  • Tavidze, A. (ed.) (2004), Andean Regional Initiative, New York: Nova Science Pub Inc.
  • Testimony of the Honorable Karen A. Harbert before Subcommittee on the Western Hemisphere (2006), Committee on International Relations, U. S. House of Representatives, in: Western Hemisphere energy security: hearing before the Subcommittee on the Western Hemisphere of the Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, 109th Congress, 2nd session, March 2, Washington D.C.
  • The State of Democracy in Venezuela: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Western Hemisphere,Peace Corps, and Narcotics Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Relations (2004), United States Senate, 108th Congress, 2nd session, June 24, Washington D.C.
  • The United States and Venezuela. New Opportunities in an Established Relationship (1991), The Report of the CSIS-CAUSA Working Group on U.S.-Venezuelan Relations, Washington D.C.
  • United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean’s (ECLAC) (2012), Social Panorama of Latin America 2012, Briefing Paper.
  • U.S. Department of State (2013), 2013 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR), www.state.gov/g/inl/rls/nrcrpt/2013 (accessed: 10.04.2013).
  • U.S. Department of State (2012), Country Reports on Terrorism, 2011, July 7, http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2011 (accessed: 21.01.2014).
  • U.S. Department of State (2001), Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs, Plan Colombia. Fact Sheet, March 14, 2001, http://www.state.gov/f/releases/iab/ (accessed 21. 03. 2013).
  • U.S. Energy Information Administration, http://www.eia.gov (accessed: 23.12.2013).
  • Veillette, C. (2005), Plan Colombia: A Progress Report, US Congressional Research Service, June 22, Washington D.C.
  • Villarreal, A.M. (2011), ATPA Renewal: Background and Issues, US Congressional Research Service, April 14, Washington D.C.
  • Villarreal, A.M. (2012), The U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Background and Issues, US Congressional Research Service, November 9, Washington D.C.
  • Watkins, E. (2009), “Ecuador Appoints Pinto as Oil and Mining Minister”, in: Oil & GaJournal, vol. 107, no. 47, http://www.ogj.com/articles/2009/06/ecuador-appointspinto.html (accessed: 17.01.2014).
Published
2016-12-13
How to Cite
WORDLICZEK, Rafał. The Main Issues in Us-Ecuador Relations in the 21st Century. Revista del CESLA, [S.l.], n. 19, p. 175-198, dec. 2016. ISSN 2081-1160. Available at: <http://revistadelcesla.com/index.php/revistadelcesla/article/view/11>. Date accessed: 24 sep. 2017.
Section
Articles